C-2000 Program Design

Executive Summary Program Implementation Energy Simulation

*   Strategy *   Program Requirements
*   Process Requirements *   Performance Requirements



Explicit procedures and objectives are always desirable, since they reduce the labour of interpretation for participants, and since outcomes can easily be related to them. On the other hand, an emphasis on leading edge systems makes it more difficult to frame requirements in an exact manner. Such an approach also reduces flexibility, increases the administrative burden, and can easily lead to an undesirable top-down mode of operation.

In the C-2000 program, the program developers tried to create a balance between structure and flexibility. Process and performance criteria were therefore explicitly defined where issues were well characterized, but only stated as general intent where the issue was still developmental. Technical support was made available to design teams, and the process as a whole was designed to allow the design team to integrate C-2000 requirements into the normal design task. The program manager made himself available to teams at short notice, so that the development process would not be delayed by bureaucratic decision-making processes. All of these measures improved the possibility that design teams would take ownership of the program and champion it to their financial backers, who are mainly interested in financial return.

This philosophy resulted in design teams being able to define specific solutions that took account of factors specific to the region and site, the client's functional requirements and the preferences of the designers themselves. The last point is not a trivial one, for there are many ways of achieving high-performance solutions and if the program manager were to insist on his or her "best" solution (e.g. fibreglass window frames or direct/indirect lighting), there would have been a distinct danger of alienating the design teams.

One method used to maximize the chance that the design team would select appropriate solutions was the provision of technical support to design teams in the form of free consulting services by subject experts. These consulting experts reported to the design team leader, and thus the control was retained by him or her.

A final element in the program strategy was to require the design teams to prepare thorough documentation of the design process, simulations and decision points so that other developers and designers could follow the flow of logic and understand issues encountered during the design development process.


Program Requirements

Technical and procedural requirements for the program were completed in 1993 and published as a 200-page document entitled C-2000 Program Requirements 1. Requirements cover a broad range of performance criteria, including demonstration of annual energy consumption that is less than half that required industry standards of good practise. In 1993, the benchmark was ASHRAE 90.1, but now the Canadian Model National Energy Code for Buildings (MNECB) is used to serve as a performance benchmark. Other performance requirements were established to assure minimal environmental impact, a high quality indoor environment, adaptability, long-lived building components and facilitation of future maintenance.

The program requirements were divided into four major areas:
*   Process Requirements, relating to stages and procedures in the design, development, construction and operation of the building.
*   Performance Requirements, relating to eight performance issues.
*   Building Design Requirements, relating to the facilities provided and general design issues pertinent to the two building types under consideration.
*   Building System Requirements, outlining the performance and prescriptive requirements that relate to specific building systems.


Process Requirements

Two issues are of interest with respect to program requirements for the design process: a requirement for teamwork and the basis for payment. The proponent was required "to ensure that architects and engineers will work as an integrated team to the extent possible", and to include an energy specialist on the team. The proponent was also required to "compensate architects and engineers on the basis of a stipulated sum, or some other basis to ensure that innovation is not penalized", to compensate for the fact that mechanical engineers normally receive fees based on a percentage of the mechanical system cost, and an improvement in performance resulting in a reduced plant cost would normally thereforereduce the fee.

Teams were provided with five binders of background information and case studies to assist their work. In addition, each team was given a quota of consulting time from a group of 79 subject specialists in order to supplement the range of skills available within design teams.

Reporting is of course a normal bureaucratic requirement, but in C-2000 the preparation of reports has been a critical component of the overall strategy. Design teams were required to submit reports at the end of the concept design phase and the design development phase, with some later updating. Each team was required to provide a report at the end of the concept design phase and another at the end of the design development phase. The reports were designed to provide information on team objectives and performance targets, as well as descriptions and discussions of design solutions at both building and system levels.

Within the overall design reports, design teams were required to prepare separate written strategy statements for each performance area, including a description of approach and specific performance targets. The main reason for this requirement was that, although some technical requirements could be specified with exactitude (e.g. energy consumption or ventilation requirements), many others (e.g. environmental impact or adaptability) were not fully understood by the industry or by the program developers. In such cases, it was therefore very difficult to state specific program requirements. It was further reasoned that the process of developing the strategies would require the design team to have a series of focussed discussions during design development, and would therefore have a beneficial effect on the design. The strategy documents were prepared in draft form for the concept design phase report, then completed for the design development phase report.

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Performance Requirements

A fundamental objective of the program was to achieve a significant industry takeup of the ideas demonstrated in the program. Although the main focus, from a public policy perspective, was on energy and environmental performance, it was recognized that a program focused very tightly on these objectives might reduce the chances of widespread adoption. In North America energy is a relatively small proportion of building operating expenses, and the objective of minimizing environmental impact, while generally agreed to in principle, provides relatively limited financial reward to the developer. It was decided, therefore, to develop requirements for a broad range of performance parameters that are of concern to developers and designers, and to present them in a form where they might be viewed as a helpful tool in designing and building superior buildings.

Specific performance requirements were developed for the issue areas listed below. More emphasis was placed on close adherence to the requirements of the first three sets of criteria than on the others, in which some project-specific deviation was permitted.

  Energy Efficiency of the building and its sub-systems;
  Environmental Impact of the building's construction and operations;
  Health, Comfort and Productivity of occupants and tenants;
  Functional Performance of building systems;
  Longevity of building systems;
  Adaptability of building designs and systems to future requirements;
  Operations and Maintenance issues related to building systems;
  Economic Viability of the building, considered on a life-cycle basis.

Energy Efficiency Requirements

C-2000 buildings are required to meet criteria for energy efficiency based on ASHRAE/IES 90.1-1989, "Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low Rise Residential Buildings" (Standard 90.1), but modified and reinforced to meet the more stringent requirements of the C-2000 program.

The C-2000 targets for energy cost and energy use were established by simulating building energy performance for a variety of buildings in locations across Canada. The procedures defined in Standard 90.1 were followed, and energy cost and source energy consumption reductions of over 50% were achieved in these tests. It was decided to make computerized energy consumption simulations mandatory, and to specify use of DOE 2.1E as the standard simulation package. To further increase quality control and consistency, a third-party consultant was designated as a quality control agent for simulation work, and this firm also provided an advisory function to the design teams.

Key requirements related to Energy Efficiency include the following:
  The C-2000 design must meet the basic requirements of ASHRAE/IES 90.1 and additional C-2000 requirements;
  Certain modifications are made in using ASHRAE/IES 90.1 for C-2000 purposes;
  Compliance of C-2000 designs relative to ASHRAE/IES 90.1 requirements are determined through adherence to the performance path, using computerized energy simulations;
  The Annual Purchased Energy Cost of C-2000 buildings will be no more than 50% of ASHRAE 90.1 requirements for office buildings and 55% for residential buildings;
  The Annual Source Energy Consumption of C-2000 buildings, where a Source Energy Adjustment Factor of 3.0 is applied for electricity, will be 50% of ASHRAE 90.1 requirements for both office buildings and 55% for residential buildings. The Source Energy requirement is intended to take into account the environmental impact of producing electricity;
  Certain assumptions are made regarding the operation of the building in carrying out the required performance simulations.

Minimization of Environmental Impact

The criteria for environmental impact are based on designing building systems to minimize the impact of building construction and operation on the external environment. The technical criteria include some prescriptive standards for environmental impact, but rely on the designers to develop effective strategies to provide the advanced solutions for environmental problems. The environmental impact criteria are divided into six areas: protection of the site ecosystem, ozone layer protection, water use and liquid waste, solid construction waste, solid wastes from building operations, and environmental effects of energy use. Basic requirements are established in each section as minimum standards for design, but guidelines are also provided for improved performance.

An environmental impact plan is required to define the design team strategies in each of the four technical areas. The plan must address both initial design and building management issues related to building operation and maintenance.

Required sub-plans include:
  a site ecosystem protection plan;
  an ozone layer protection plan;
  a water use plan;
  a construction and demolition waste management plan;
  a plan to deal with solid wastes caused by building and tenant operations;
  a building emissions budget.

Occupant Health and Comfort Requirements

The building-related health, comfort and productivity of building occupants were defined in terms of the indoor environment, including indoor air quality, the visual environment, including both artificial and natural lighting, the acoustic environment and the degree of control that occupants have over these environmental parameters. The overall goal of the requirements in this Section is to ensure that 90% of building occupants are satisfied with their indoor environment. The achievement of this goal will be determined through post-occupancy surveys which will be carried out by CANMET during the three-year period after occupancy.

The technical criteria for indoor environment are primarily prescriptive in nature except for the personal control requirement. Performance criteria are specified for specific contaminants. The philosophy behind the criteria set is first, to avoid generation of any contaminant or problem, second, to eliminate the contaminant or problem at the source and third, to dilute the contaminant to some acceptable level if the first two strategies do not achieve the desired result. It should be noted that the program developers were well aware that the personal control requirement might well fight against the goal of energy efficiency.

Functional Performance Requirements

The functional appropriateness of the building design or building system is of fundamental importance in any building, and because its underlying nature makes it seem obvious, a scrutiny of performance along this dimension is often overlooked. Although the program does not weigh this parameter or the subsequent ones as heavily as the first three, a consideration of functional performance does address some major issues. For example, design teams are pressed to examine the type and characteristics of systems selected relative to functional requirements. Specifically, are HVAC systems and equipment matched to load characteristics? If not, serious operating inefficiencies may occur, as the system operates under part-load conditions. Another issue of fundamental importance is whether the design of the building envelope is suited to its functions as a weather barrier and barrier against moisture and energy flows. More general examples include the suitability of spaces in terms of their location, dimensional and environmental attributes to their intended functions. The measure of functional appropriateness is the body of information contained in the Functional Program.

Longevity Requirements

The longevity of materials and systems has an obvious effect on environmental impact. Poor quality window frames, doors, exterior or interior finish materials will have to be replaced often, and this will result in solid waste disposal problems and the additional use of materials and energy. Requirements and guidelines for the longevity of various systems are specified and are used in the determination of life-cycle costs.

Adaptability Requirements

Although the flexibility and adaptability of spaces and systems in the building are difficult to define and to measure, they are of considerable importance in ensuring long-term performance. Buildings will be used for a relatively long life cycle and design must therefore anticipate that the building occupant needs will change during the life of the building. System design can accommodate changing needs by planning for changes in the base building design that will allow changes to occur without degrading the natural or indoor environment or energy performance. Requirements and guidelines for the adaptability of the building as a whole and for various systems are specified.

Operations and Maintenance Requirements

The goal of the operation and maintenance criteria is to ensure that the operation and maintenance issues are addressed in the building design so that energy efficiency, comfort and productivity and other vital areas of performance are maintained to a high level over the life of the building. It is a well-documented fact that poor operations and maintenance practices can cause initially high levels of performance to decline markedly, with resulting inefficiencies, occupant distress and physical deterioration of the building as a whole. Operation and maintenance standards of performance are part of the building design and must be integrated with building design from the early concept design phase.

Operations and maintenance performance requirements include the following:
  The design team will include a representative with O&M expertise;
  An Operations and Maintenance Plan will be developed as part of the Design Brief;
  O&M documentation will be provided;
  Training will be provided for building staff.

Economic Viability

The goal of the economic viability criteria is to ensure that the selection of C-2000 measures is subjected to a rigorous economic evaluation. The developer of the project will, in any case, make a careful estimate of capital costs, but the life-cycle costing called for in this section will ensure that all parties become aware of the net combined effects of high-performance systems, lower operating costs and longer-lasting and more adaptable systems.

The economic evaluation involves the definition of a point of reference for the base building, the calculation of operating cost savings and capital cost increments, and the selection of factors for life cycle of measure and escalating factors for the cost of money and operating costs. The techniques used for economic evaluation shall be based on life cycle costing principles. The evaluation will be used to help identify which C 2000 measure options are optimal for the building design.

Economic Viability requirements include the following:
  A life-cycle cost comparison is to be carried out for the base building and the proposed C-2000 building;
  Requirements are stated for assumptions in base building and proposed building capital costs;
  Requirements are stated for assumptions in base building and proposed building operating costs;
  Requirements are stated for assumptions regarding the lifespan of systems;
  The methods to be followed in carrying out economic analysis are specified.

Building Design Requirements

Requirements and guidelines relating to the general design and provision of facilities in office buildings and multi-unit residential buildings are outlined.

Specific requirements for all buildings include the following:
  Certain facilities to facilitate recycling and to encourage bicycle use are required;
  Facilities with substantially different environmental conditions are to be isolated from the rest of the building;
  Design documentation is to show potential air movement through the building and methods of reducing same;
  In office buildings ,the design of the HVAC system is to take into account the likelihood of certain support facilities that will require special environmental handling;
  Access and usability for handicapped persons is required.

Building System Requirements

The following specific systems are covered in this section. Each sub-section contains system-specific requirements and guidelines that will help to achieve the overall performance goals. We have not followed existing trades-oriented taxonomies, because of the need to emphasize an inter-disciplinary systems approach. Our system categories and requirements include:

Site & Landscaping

  Use of plant material native to the area and with low water requirements is required;
  Recycled materials are to be used for paving where feasible;
  Paving close to windows of low-rise buildings is to be designed to assist daylighting requirements;
  The characteristics of water bodies is not to be adversely affected by building systems.

Building Structure

  Radon tests are specified for concrete in areas where this is relevant.

Building Envelope & Air Barrier

  Requirements are presented for design documentation;
  Roles and procedures for design team members are to be specified;
  Requirements are presented for design assumptions and load calculations;
  The longevity requirements for building envelope systems are defined;
  No insulation or sealant using CFCs for manufacture or installation is permitted;
  Walls shall be designed according to rainscreen design principles;
  Requirements for maximum air leakage of the envelope are stated;
  Requirements for the design of air barriers are presented;
  Vapour diffusion requirements are defined;
  Testing and performance verification for the air barrier system is required;
  Provisions for reducing the effects of penetrations of the envelope are outlined.

Fenestration, Doors & Openings

  The thermal performance characteristics of fenestration systems selected will be part of the energy simulations carried out;
  Fenestration systems are part of the air leakage limits for the envelope;
  A minimum level of Visible Light Transmittance of glazing is required;
  Requirements are stated to ensure that, where operable windows are provided, that they will not negatively affect the indoor environment.

Non-Structural Architectural Systems

  Several criteria for selection of materials are presented;
  Sound Transmission Class criteria for various types of assemblies are outlined.

Plumbing (Excluding water heating)

  Flow-restrictive fixtures are to be used;
  Water to be re-used for any purpose is to be filtered;
  Service hot water temperatures are limited.

Vertical Transport

  Automatic elevator systems are to use schedule controls and efficient motorcontrols.

Thermal Storage

  The feasibility of using thermal storage systems is to be investigated;
  The efficiency of thermal storage systems is to exceed 90%.

Thermal Generation

  Restrictions and criteria for the use of materials are stated;
  Design criteria for cooling towers are outlined;
  Gas-fired boilers are to be high-efficiency pulse combustion type.

Solar Energy Systems

  The use of substances having and Ozone Depletion Potential in excess of 0.05 is not permitted.

Thermal Recovery / Thermal Transfer

  Restrictions and criteria for the use of materials are stated;
  Simulations of thermal storage systems are to be carried out using an approved simulation program.

Ventilation Systems

  ASHRAE 62-89 is used as the basis for office building ventilation requirements and CSA F326 for multi-unit residential buildings;
  Provision for back-up ventilation is required in office buildings;
  Balanced ventilation systems are required in residential suites;
  Ventilation systems are to maintain full functionality in adverse conditions caused by stack effects;
  Relative humidity levels are to be maintained at between 25% and 60%;
  CO2 and CO sensors are required in certain circumstances;
  Air filtration requirements are stated;
  Locational requirements for air intakes and exhausts are stated;
  Measures to prevent the growth of micro-organisms are outlined;
  Measures to improve the ease of maintenance are presented.

HVAC Delivery Systems

  Air distribution design is to specify intended air flow patterns;
  VAV systems are to maintain a constant supply of outdoor air under part-load conditions;
  Measures to prevent the growth of micro-organisms are outlined;
  There is to be access to ductwork and plenum spaces for cleaning;
  The system shall be able to provide separate ventilation for specialized tenant spaces;
  Air terminals are to be chosen for low Noise Criteria levels;
  Pumps are to be selected for the highest efficiency;
  Hydronic distribution networks are to be analysed for efficiency;
  Air movement patterns are to be tested.

Power (Excluding lighting)

  No electrical equipment is to contain PCBs;
  Transformers are to provide optimum performance under all load conditions;
  Tenants are to be sub-metered;
  Minimum efficiencies for motors are provided;
  Measures to improve efficiency of block heaters are provided.

Lighting Systems

  Daylighting is to be used to the maximum extent possible;
  Lighting loads are limited, relative to ASHRAE/IES 90.1 requirements, to 80% of External Lighting Power Allowance and to 75% of the Interior Lighting Power Allowance;
  Lighting levels are to conform to IES standards;
  Lighting systems are to conform to IES requirements relating to video display terminals (VDTs);
  Colour rendering index shall be minimum 80 CRI in office and living areas;
  Glare control is required, and brightness differentials shall be limited to a maximum of ten to one;
  Perimeter areas in office spaces are to be controlled by daylight sensing devices;
  Size limitations for office lighting control zones are presented;
  The required characteristics for office lighting control systems are outlined;
  Size limitations for lighting control zones in MUR public areas are presented.

Cabling and Building Automation Systems

  HVAC zones size limits in office and residential buildings are defined;
  All C-2000 buildings are to be provided with a building automation system;
  Characteristics of the required BAS are outlined;
  Mechanical systems are to be controlled by DDC systems;
  Cabling is to be easily accessible.

Office Equipment

  The Buildings O & M Plan is to consider methods of inducing tenants to procure efficient equipment.

Residential Appliances

  Minimum efficiencies for residential appliances are stated.

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Nils Larsson

Woytek Kujawski
kujawski@intranet.ca -  INPOL Consulting

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